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Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich

Aesthetics

Lectures on Fine Art by

G.W.F. Hegel

Translated by T. M. Knox

Volume I

CONTENTS OF VOLUME ONE

Silenus with the Infant Bacchus: frontispiece

INTRODUCTION

1. Prefatory Remarks I

2. Limitation and Defence of Aesthetics I

3. Refutation of Objections 3

4. Scientific Ways of Treating Beauty and Art 14

5. Concept of the Beauty of Art 22

6. Common Ideas of Art 25

(i) The Work of Art as a Product of Human Activity 25

(ii) The Work of Art, as being for Apprehension by Man's Senses, is drawn from the Sensuous Sphere 32

(iii) The Aim of Art 41

7. Historical Deduction of the True Concept of Art 55

(i) The Kantian Philosophy 56

(ii) Schiller, Winckelmann, Schelling 61

(iii) Irony 64

8. Division of the Subject 69

(i) The Idea of the Beauty of Art or the Ideal 73

(ii) Development of the Ideal into the Particular Forms of the Beauty of Art 75

(iii) The System of the Individual Arts 82

PART I. The Ideal of Artistic Beauty, or the Ideal 91

INTRODUCTION. Position of Art in Relation to the Finite World and to Religion and Philosophy 91

Division of the Subject 105

Chapter I. CONCEPT OF THE Beautiful AS SUCH 106

1. The Idea 106

2. The Idea in Existence 110

3. The Idea of the Beautiful 111

Chapter II. The BEAUTY OF NATURE 116

A. NATURAL BEAUTY AS SUCH 116

1. The Idea as Life 116

2. Life in Nature as Beautiful 125

3. Ways of Considering Life in Nature 129

B. THE External BEAUTY OF THE ABSTRACT FORM AND THE ABSTRACT UNITY OF THE SENSUOUS MATERIAL 133

1. Beauty of Abstract Form 134

(a) Regularity and Symmetry 134

(b) Conformity to Law 138

(c) Harmony 140

2. Beauty as Abstract Unity of the Sensuous Material 141

C. DEFICIENCY OF NATURAL BEAUTY 143

1. The Inner in Immediacy as only the Inner 145

2. The Dependence of Immediate Individual Existence 147

3. The Restrictndness of Immediate Individual Existence 150

Chapter III. THE BEAUTY OF ART OR THE IDEAL 153

A. THE IDEAL AS SUCH 153

1. Beautiful Individuality 153

2. The Relation of the Ideal to Nature 160

B. THE DF.TERMINACY OF THE IDEAL 174

I. Ideal Determinacy as such 175

1. The Divine as Unity and Universality 175

2. The Divine as a Croup of Cods 175

3. Repose of the Ideal 176

11. Action 177

1. The Central State of the World 179

(a) Individual Independence-Heroic Age 179

(b) Prosaic States of Affairs in the Present 193

(c) The Reconstitution of Individual Independence 195

2. The Situation 196

(a) Absence of Situation 200

(b) The Specific Situation in its Harmlessness 200

(c) Collision 204

3. Action 217

(a) The Universal Powers over Action 220

(b) The Individual Agents 225

(c) Character 236

III. The External Determinacy of the Ideal 244

1. Abstract Externality as such 246

2. Correspondence of the Concrete Ideal with its External Reality 252

3. The Externality of the Ideal [Work of Art] in Relation to the Public 263

C. THE ARTIST 280

1. Imagination (Phantasie), Genius, and Inspiration 281

2. Objectivity of the Representation 289

3. Manner, Style, and Originality 291

PART II. DEVELOPMENT OF THE IDEAL INTO THE PARTICULAR FORMS OF ART 299

INTRODUCTION 299

Section I. THE SYMBOLIC FORM OF ART 303

INTRODUCTION. The Symbol in general 303

Division of the Subject 314

Chapter I. UNCONSCIOUS SYMBOLISM 323

A. IMMEDIATE UNITY OF MEANING AND SHAPE 323

1. The Religion of Zoroaster 325

2. The Non-symbolic Character of Zoroastrianism 329

3. Non-artistic Interpretation and Presentation of Zoroastrianism 330

B. FANTASTIC SYMBOLISM 332

1. The Indian Conception of Brahma 335

2. Sensuousness, Boundlessness, and the Activity of Personifying 336

3. View ot Purification and Penance 346

C. SYMBOLISM Proper 347

1. Egyptian View and Representation of the Dead: Pyramids 354

2. Animal Worship and Animal Masks 357

3. Complete Symbolism—Memnons, Isis and Osiris, the Sphinx 357

Chapter II. SYMBOLISM OF THE SUBLIME 362

A. THK PANTHEISM OF ART 364

1. Indian Poetry 366

2. Mohammedan Poetry 368

3. Christian Mysticism 371

B. THE ART OF THE Sublime 371

1. God as Creator and Lord of the World 373

2. The Finite World Bereft of God 374

3. The Human Individual 375

Chapter III. CONSCIOUS SYMBOLISM OF THE COMPARATIVE ART-FORM 378

A. COMPARISONS ORIGINATING FROM THE EXTERNAL OBJECT 381

1. Fable 383

2. Parable, Proverb, Apologue 390

(a) Parable 390

(b) Proverbs 392

(c) Apologue 392

3. Metamorphoses 393

D. COMPARISONS WHICH START FROM THE MEANING 395

1. Riddle 397

2. Allegory 398

3. Metaphor, Image, Simile 402

(a) Metaphor 403

(b) Image 408

(c) Simile 410

C. DISAPPEARANCE of THE SYMBOLIC FORM OF ART 421

1. Didactic Poetry 422

2. Descriptive Poetry 424

3. The Ancient Epigram 424

Section II. The CLASSICAL FORM OF ART 427

INTRODUCTION. The Classical Type in General 427

1. Independence of the Classical as Interpenetration of Spirit and its Shape in Nature 431

2. Greek Art as the Actual Existence of the Classical Ideal 436

3. Position of the Productive Artist in Classical Art 438

4. Division of the Subject 441

Chapter I. THE PROCESS OF SHAPING THE CLASSICAL FORM OF ART 443

1. The Degradation of the Animal 445

(a) Animal Sacrifices 445

(b) Hunts 447

(c) Metamorphoses 447

2. The Battle between the Old Gods and the New 453

(a) Oracles 456

(b) The Old Gods in Distinction from the New 458

(c) The Conquest of the Old Gods 465

3. Affirmative Retention of the Negatived Features 468

(a) The Mysteries 468

(b) Preservation of the old Gods in Artistic Representation 469

(c) Natural Basis of the New Gods 471

Chapter II. THE IDEAL OF The CLASSICAL FORM OF ART 476

1. The Ideal of Classical Art in General 477

(a) The Ideal as Originated by Free Artistic Creation 477

(b) The New Gods of the Classical Ideal 481

(c) The Sort of External Representation 485

2. The Group of Particular (Jods 486

(a) Plurality of Individual (Jods 487

(b) Lack of a Systematic Arrangement 487

(c) Fundamental Character of the Group of the Gods 488

3. The Individuality of the (Jods seriatim 490

(a) Material for Individualization 491

(b) Preservation of the Moral Basis 499

(c) Advance to Grace and Attractiveness 500

Chapter III. THE DISSOLUTION OF THE CLASSICAL FORM OF ART 502

1. Fate 502

2. Dissolution of the Gods through their Anthropomorphism 503

(a) Deficiency in Inner Subjectivity 504

(b) The Transition to Christianity is only a Topic of Modern Art 506

(c) Dissolution of Classical Art in its own Sphere 509

3. Satire 512

(a) Difference between the Dissolution of Classical Art and that of Symbolic Art 512

(b) Satire 512

(c) The Roman World as the Soil where Satire Flourishes 514

Section III. THE ROMANTIC FORM OF ART 517

INTRODUCTION. Of the Romantic in General 517

1. The Principle of Inner Subjectivity 518

2. The more Detailed Features of the Content and Form of the Romantic 519

3. Relation of the Subject-matter to the Mode of Representation 524

4. Division of the Subject 528

Chapter I. THE RELIGIOUS DOMAIN OF ROMANTIC ART 530

1. The Redemptive History of Christ 534

(a) Apparent Superfluity of Art 535

(b) Necessary Emergence of Art 535

(c) The Details of the External Appearance are Accidental 530

2. Religious Love 539

(a) Concept of the Absolute as Love 539

(b) The Heart [or Soul] 540

(r) Love as the Romantic Ideal 540

3. The Spirit of the Community 543

(a) Martyrs 544

(b) Repentance and Conversion 548

(r) Miracles and Legends 550

Chapter II. CHIVALRY 552

1. Honour 557

(a) The Concept of Honour 558

(b) Vulnerability of Honour 560

(c) Reconstitution of Honour 561

2. Love 562

(a) Concept of Love 562

(b) Love's Collisions 565

(c) Love's Contingency 566

3. Fidelity 568

(a) Fidelity in Service 569

(b) Fidelity's Subjective Independence 570

(c) Fidelity's Collisions 570

Chapter III. THE FORMAL INDEPENDENCE OF INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERS 573

1. The Independence of the Individual Character 576

(a) Formal Firmness of Character 577

(b) Character as Inner but Undeveloped Totality 580

(c) What the Substantial Interest is in the Presentation of Formal Character 585

2. Adventures 586

(a) The Contingency of Aims and Collisions 586

(b) The Comic Treatment of Contingency 590

(c) Romantic Fiction 592

3. Dissolution of the Romantic Form of Art 593

(a) The Subjective Artistic Imitation of the Existent Present 595

(b) Subjective Humour 600

(c) The End of the Romantic Form of Art 602

CONTENTS OF VOLUME TWO

PART III. THE SYSTEM OF THE INDIVIDUAL ARTS 613

Section I. ARCHITECTURE 630

Section II. SCULPTURE 701

Section III. THE ROMANTIC ARTS 792

INDEX 1239



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